Covering upto December 1996


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Editor's Note


Hub Dam

Hub Dam is located 35 miles north of Karachi on the Hub River. The dam has a gross storage of 857,000 acre feet of water and submerged 20,360 acres of barren land. Its live storage capacity is 760,000 acre feet, and its expected life is 75 years. The spillway, 6,020 feet long, is located on the right bank and has a discharge capacity of 471,500 cusecs. The crest length of the embankment is 352 feet.

Kalabagh Dam

Kalabagh Dam is a multi-purpose project proposed to be constructed on the Indus River just below the confluence of Soan River, 118 miles downstream of Tarbela Dam and 14 miles upstream of Jinnah Barrage. It is to have a crest elevation of 940 feet and a length of 11,000 feet. It will have a useable storage capacity of 6.1 million acre feet of water, generate 2,400 megawatts of power initially and 3,600 megawatts ultimately, and provide significant flood alleviation benefits.

First proposed in the 1950s, the project was seriously planned in the 1980s but encountered political resistance from the NWFP and Sindh provinces. There is also disagreement over whether irrigation works should or should not be part of the project.

With the cost of the project escalating as time goes by, the government is now pursuing a programme of thermal power generation, has begun work on a hydropower plant at Ghazi Barotha, and is studying other options, such as small hydel dams and alternate large dams sites on the Indus.

Khanpur Dam

Khanpur Dam has been constructed in a narrow gorge on the Haro River. It is located 8 miles north of Taxila on the Haripur Road, about 25 miles from Islamabad. It is a multipurpose project which supplies drinking water to Islamabad and Rawalpindi and irrigation water to NWFP (110 cusecs) and Punjab (87 cusecs).

Khanpur village, from which the dam derives its name, has been submerged by the reservoir, so a new Khanpur town has been built downstream of the Dam. The dam is 167 feet high and stores 106,000 acre feet of water. Construction was started in 1968 and completed in 1983 at a cost of Rs.1,352 million.

Mangla Dam

The Mangla Dam on the River Jhelum is one of the longest earth-fill dams in the world. The Indus Basin treaty of 1960 with India paved the way for its construction. The treaty provided for two dams, one on the River Jhelum at Mangla and the other on the Indus at Tarbela.

It is an earthen dam 330 feet high and 11,000 feet long, with a crest elevation of 1,234 feet. Besides the main dam, Sukian Dyke, 17,000 feet in length, and a small dam 3,700 feet long to block the Jari Nala were also constructed. Jari Dam is 11 miles from New Mirpur.

Mangla Dam has two spillways on the right side. The main spillway has a normal service capacity of 900,000 cusecs. It has nine gates 36 feet wide and 40 feet high. The second is an emergency spillway. Its design provides for a future increase of 48 feet in height.

Rawal Dam

Rawal Dam was built across the Korang Nallah, 9 miles from Rawalpindi, between 1960 and 1962. It is a concrete dam 700 feet long, 100 feet above the river bed. It has a storage capacity of 47,500 acre feet and covers 3.5 square miles. Along the right side is an outlet for 112 cusecs of water supply, 32 cusecs (16.5 million gallons per day) for urban water supply and the rest for irrigation.

In recent years, the supply of water for irrigation has been curtailed due to an increased demand for urban drinking water.

Tanda Dam

Tanda Dam is an earth-fill dam 115 feet high and 2,200 feet long, 30 feet wide at the top and with a base width of 815 feet. Tanda Dam was built 4 miles west of Kohat (NWFP) so as to impound the surplus water of the Kohat Toi, a right bank tributary of the Indus, during high floods into on off-channel reservoir with a storage capacity of 78,000 acre feet. Its live storage capacity is 64,000 acre feet, and it irrigates 32,000 acres of land with 145 percent cropping intensity every year.

Tarbela Dam

Tarbela one of the largest earth-filled dams in the world and the largest dam in Pakistan is designed to store the waters of the Indus at a point where the river leaves the Himalayan foothills to enter the Potohar Plateau. After some questioning and hesitation, the international community of donors agreed to finance the dam out of the financial resources that were made available for the Indus waters replacement works. Construction was started in 1968. Scheduled for completion in 1975, it was actually completed in 1974.

The earth-and-rock fill dam is 485 feet high. The crest elevation is 1,565 feet, and it is 9,000 feet in length. It has two irrigation outlets and two outlets for power generation. Each tunnel is 45 feet in diameter and 2,400 feet long.

The dam has two spillways, the service spillway and an auxilliary spillway, both located on the left side. The main spillway has 7 gates, each 50 feet wide and 50 feet high. The discharge capacity is 650,000 cusecs. Its power generating capacity is 1,400 megawatts at present and will eventually be increased to 4,000 megawatts.

Warsak Dam

In August 1947, at the time of Independence, the only water storage dam in Pakistan was Namal Dam in Mianwali District in the Punjab. It was constructed in 1913 to store about 22,364 acre feet of water for local use.

After Independence, the Warsak Dam was constructed on the Kabul River about 19 miles northwest of Peshawar. Completed in 1960, the dam is 460 feet long and 250 feet high. Its spillway has 9 gates of 40 feet each.

The dam has a maximum discharge capacity of 540,000 cusecs, and 500 cusecs through an irrigation tunnel is 3-1/2 miles long and 10 feet in diameter. Warsak Dam has six power units of 40,000 kilowatts each, for a total power generation capacity of ?.

  1. Dr. Nazir Ahmed and Dr. Ghulam Rasul Chaudhry, Irrigated Agriculture of Pakistan (Lahore: Shehzad Nazir Publications, 1988).

  2. "Kalabagh Dam: A Flood Of Bitterness," News, Islambad, 26 May 1995.

  3. M. D. Zafar, Pakistan Studies (Lahore: Aziz Publishers, 1986).

  4. S. N. Husan,(ed.)., WAPDA Miscellany (Lahore: WAPDA, 1965).

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