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Editor's Note

Personalities - Political



Abdul Ghaffar Khan was born in 1890 in Charsadda which is in Peshawar district of the NWFP. His family belonged to the Mohammad Zia Pathan tribe. His father, Khan Behran Khan, was a well-off landlord and on good terms with the British. He had two sons, Dr. Khan Sahib (who was seven years older then Ghaffar Khan) and Ghaffar Khan.

Ghaffar Khan received an early religious education in his village. Although neducated himself, his father was broad-minded and put both sons in schools where they could get an English education. They studied in the Municipal Board High School, Peshawar and then in Edwards Memorial Mission High School.

While he was in tenth class, Ghaffar Khan applied for entry into the Indian Army. He appeared for his exams in 1907, but in the middle he was asked to appear in the army so he left his studies without prior permission from his parents to go to the Mardan Cantonment to join the army, where he was given an assignment as a guide. After a year left the army and joined Aligarh College in 1909 as a day scholar. After one year, he went to his village during the summer break and never returned to complete his studies. Here he was motivated by Zafar Ali Khan's newspaper Zamindar and Abdul Kalam Azad's Al-Halal. Later in life he opposed the political ideas of the Aligarh Movement and the Muslim League.

Ghaffar Khan was very disappointed at the deteriorating condition of the Pathans and became determined to educate them. He opened a school in 1910 in his village Utman Zai. Ghaffar Khan married in 1911, but only after four years, his wife died.

Ghaffar Khan's political life began in 1919 when he took part in the agitation against the Reform Bill. He was arrested on 16 April 1919 and released after six months. In 1920 he attended the Congress session held in Nagpur. He participated in the Khilafat Movement and organized the movement in the NWFP. In the same year he organized the Hijrat-i Kabul (Migration to Kabul) movement. He was arrested in 1921 and was released after three years in 1924. After performing Haj in 1926, he started a monthly magazine in Pushto, called Pakhtoon, which was closed after his arrest in 1930. He was released in 1931. The magazine restarted in 1938 and was published every 10 days but was again closed in 1941. The magazine was again published as a weekly in 1945 and after two years was again stopped.

Ghaffar Khan's greatest achievement was his movement of 1929, Tanzeem-e Khudai Khydmat Garaan. This movement was aimed at social and political awakening. In the beginning, it was a movement purely for the social welfare of the Pathans. At that time 98 percent of the Pathans were illiterate, and the movement worked towards educating the masses. The workers wore red shirts, so they were called Red Shirts. The Indian National Congress supported his movement. Thus began, an enduring friendship between the Congress and Ghaffar Khan. In 1937 Ghaffar Khan became the president of the Congress in the NWFP. In 1934 Ghaffar Khan was asked to preside over the Congress session, but he refused by saying that he was only a simple soldier and wanted to die as a soldier. He was a friend of Gandhi and spent one year with him, after his release from prison. His long association with Gandhi and propagation of Gandhi's ideas earned him the title of Sarhadi Gandhi (Gandhi of the Frontier). He activily worked against the establishment of Pakistan.

In 1948 he became a member of the Legislative Assembly of the NWFP and on this platform demanded the formation of “Pashtoonistan”. He was under house arrest from 1945 till 1954 for his Pashtoonistan movement. In 1955 the West Pakistan one unit system was adopted, under which all provinces were to be governed by one administrative system. Ghaffar Khan opposed One Unit but the irony was that his brother, Doctor Khan Shaib became the first Chief Minister of West Pakistan under the new arrangement (1955-1957). He was arrested in 1956 and remained in persion till 1959. After that he stayed in Kabul for a long time. In 1969 he was invited to India to attend the 100th birthday of Gandhi, his first visit after independence.

On August 14, 1987, the Indian government awarded him the Bharat Ratan, the major award given by the government. The award was received by his son, Khan Abdul Wali Khan. On 18 August he was admitted to the Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, where he died on 20 January 1988 at the age of 98.



Born in 1945, Aitzaz Ahsan did his MA and Bar at Law from cambridge University and practiced as a lawyer in the superior courts of Pakistan. He also worked as vice president of Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. Being a member of Political Prison's Relief and Rehabilitation Committee Pakistan, Aitzaz Ahsan appeared in military courts as defence counsel.\

Aitzaz Ahsan held the portfolio of Punjab information planning & development minister during PPP's government in 1970's. He was jailed several times as a political prisoner without trial for active participation in the movement for restoration of democracy. He held the portfolio of Interior Ministry during PPP government from 1988 to 1990. He lost the 1993 elections.



Born in Akora Khattak on September 15, 1925, Ajmal Khattak came under the inlflunce of Ghaffar Khan as a child. During the Quit India movement, Ajmal Khattak became active in politics. He was in Government High School Peshawar when he was forced to leave the School due to his active participation in the Quit India Movement. It was the beginning of a political career which stretched over five decades during which literary pursuits and education took turns. He also served as editor of various News papers and periodicals, including Anjam, Shahbaz, Adal & Rahber. For five years, he worked as script writer in Radio Pakistan Peshawar. Ajmal Khattak has an M.A. Persian from Peshawar University and is also a renowned Pushto scholar. He is a member of Progressive writers movement and is credited with introduction of modern trends.

Ajmal Khattak started his political career in the 1940's as a Red shirt, Khudai Khidmatgar. His political philosophy has been grately influenced by Marxist ideology. His struggle for provincial autonomy led to his house arrest. After Rawalpindi Liaqat Bagh Firing of March 23, 1973, he left for Afghanistan and stayed there in exile for 16 long years. In Afghanistan Sardar Dawood honoured him as a state guest. Ajmal Khattak enjoyed excellent relation with various Afghan government during the Soviet accupation from president Tarakai to Najeebullah. He ended his exile in 1989 and his party joined alliance-right wing, Pakistan Muslim League in 1990 mainly due to the efforts of Nawaz Shariff. Ajmal Khattak has written 13 books in Pushto and Urdu including a History of Pushto Literature (in Urdu) Pakistan Main Qaumi Jamhoori Tehrikin and Jilawatan Ki Shaairy. (Poetry in Exile)


Altaf Hussain was born on 17 September 1953 in Karachi. In 1979 he did B. Pharmacy from Karachi University and took admission in M. Pharmacy but had to leave the University before graduating. Altaf Hussain worked as trainee in Seventh Day Advanced Hospital in Karachi. He also worked in a foreign pharmaceutical company for some time.

Altaf laid the foundation of All Pakistan Muhajir Students' Organization (APMSO) in Karachi University on 11 June 1978 and remained it's founding Chairman. On 18 March 1984, he laid the foundation of Mohajir Qaumi Movement. He converted it into a Political Party after the ethnic riots of 1986 and 1987. The MQM won eleven of Karachi's thirteen seats in the National Assembly elections held in November 1988 and October 1990. In December 1988, Altaf Hussain concluded an alliance with Benazir Bhutto's government but the support was quietly with drawn in 1989. Altaf Hussain became a staunch supporter of Nawaz Sharif during vote of no confidence move against Benazir Bhutto in 1989. The alliance with Nawaz Sharif was continued until the Sindh operation. He left for London in 1992 and took political assylum.


Air Marshal (R) Asghar Khan commanded the Pakistan Air Force from 1957 to 1965 and was considered largely responsible for developing it into an effective striking power. He served as president of Pakistan International Airlines until 1967. Asghar Khan entered politics in 1968, when the movement against Ayub Khan started.

Asghar Khan made a fifteen day tour of Punjab and NWFP and an eleven day tour of East Pakistan and attended the round table conference convened by Ayub Khan to agree on the terms of transfer of power. On 13 March 1969, he announced the formation of a new political party, the Justice Party. In June 1969, Asghar Khan merged his party with others to form the Pakistan Democratic Front.

He suddenly withdrew from politics in December 1969, but a little later he formed the Tehrik-i-Istiqlal and took part in the 1970 general elections, which he lost. During Bhutto's rule from 1971 to 1977 Tehrik-i-Istiqlal was in the forefront of the opposition. During the 1977 elections, Asghar Khan allied his party with the PNA against the People's Party. In the summer of 1978, a cabinet was formed which included members of the PNA, but Asghar Khan refused to join the cabinet and withdrew from the PNA.

Asghar Khan joined the newly formed Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MRD) in 1983 and was detained by the government. In 1986 Asghar Khan left the MRD, as a result of which many of the Tehrik's members resigned in protest. The Air Marshal boycotted the 1985 non-party elections but took part in the 1988 elections. He has, however, failed to win a seat in any general election. At present his party is in disarray as some of its main leaders have left to join the PML(N). His publications include Generals in Politics (1983).


Benazir Bhutto was born on June 21, 1953 in Karachi. She is the eldest of four children of late Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Benazir attended Lady Jennings Nursery School, the Convent of Jesus and Mary (Karachi), and the Convent of Jesus and Mary (Murree). At 16, Benazir began her four years of study at Radcliffe.

While in the U.S., she accompanied her father to the United Nations, Security Council in December, 1971. Wishing to groom her for politics, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto took Benazir to Simla for the crucial Indo-Pakistan talks in June, 1972. After graduating from Radcliffe in 1973, Benazir went to Oxford, where she also joined the Oxford Union Debating Society. Just before graduating, Benazir became president of Oxford Union, where she had served before as treasurer. After completing her post-graduate degree, she left Oxford for Pakistan in June, 1977.

A month later on 5 July, 1977 martial law was declared, and Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was taken into “Protective Custody”. After her father's hanging in 1979, Benazir spent almost five years in various jails and ten months in solitary confinement. She was released in 1984 as international pressure mounted. She went into exile in England for two years. Another tragedy occurred when her youngest brother, Shah Nawaz, died in Cannes, France under mysterious circumstances in 1985. She came back in August 1985 to bury his body in Garhi Khuda Baksh, the ancestral graveyard. After one year she returned on April 10, 1986, this time to fight General Zia in elections. Her welcome was tumultuous, and one million people gathered at Lahore airport to receive her. After her return she attended rallies all over Pakistan and kept in close touch with the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MRD), which had been formed in 1981 at 70 Clifton, her home in Karachi.

On December 18, 1987 Benazir married Asif Ali Zardari, who like Benazir is from a land holding family in Sindh. Her first child, a boy named Bilawal, was born on September 20, 1988. Soon afterwards Bakhtawar and Asifa, her two daughters, followed.

Benazir became the youngest prime minister in the world at age 35 and the first Muslim woman to lead a Muslim nation in modern times after winning the 1988 general elections. She was dismissed from power by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan in August 1990. During her term in office, Benazir initiated a peoples programme aimed at the economic uplift of the masses. Another highlight of her term was the SAARC summit in Islamabad in 1989 and the subsequent agreement between India and Pakistan not to attack each other's nuclear installations. Benazir returned to power by winning the October 1993 elections. She is currently serving as prime minister. Benazir's second term came to an end on November 5, 1996, when her government was dismissed by President Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari.

Her publications include an autobiography, Daughter of the East (1989), Pakistan: The Gathering Storm, Foreign Policy in Perspective (1978), and The Way Out (1988), a compilation of her works and speeches. She is the recepient of the Bruno Kreisky Award for human rights (1988), an honarary Phi Beta Kappa award (1989) by Radcliffe College, and an honarary fellowship by Lady Margaret Hall, St. Catherine College, Oxford.


Chaudhri Muhammad Ali was born on July 15, 1905 in Jullundur, educated in Lahore, and received his M.Sc. degree in 1927 from University of Punjab. Throughout his academic career, he won a first class in every examination. He served as a lecturer in chemistry at Islamia College in Lahore before joining the Indian Audit and Accounts Service in 1928. He was deputed as accountant general to Bahawalpur State in 1932. He joined the Government of India in 1936 as private secretary to the finance minister, Sir James Grigg, and rose to the position of under-secretary of the Finance Department in 1938. By 1939, he had been appointed deputy financial advisor and in 1945, financial advisor of war and supply, a post never held by an Indian. During the drafting of the partition plan, he was one of the two secretaries of the Partition Council, presided by Lord Mountabatten.

On the establishment of Pakistan, he became secretary general of the new government and played a key role in its organization. In 1951 he became finance minister and in 1955 prime minister. Under his leadership the Constituent Assembly adopted the first constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. He organized Tehirk-i-Istehkam-i-Pakistan in 1957. In 1958 he merged his Tehrik with Nizam-i-Islam Party, which associated with Combined Opposition Parties in 1964, Pakistan Democrat Movement 1967-69, Democratic Action Committee 1969. Chaudry Mohammad Ali was Instrumental in the formation of Pakistan Democratic Party in 1969. He retired from politics in 1969, due to falling health.

In his personal life, Chaudhri Muhammad Ali was married to Razia Sultana, daughter of Dr. Muhammad Jan of Amritsar. Chaudhri Mohammad Ali authored two books of considerable importance, Emergence of Pakistan, 1967, The Task Before Us, 1974.


Gohar Ayub, son of the late President Field Marshal Ayub Khan, was born in Rehana, Abbottabad, in January 1937. He studied at Burn Hall College, Abbottabad, and Saint Mary's, Rawalpindi. Later, he graduated from the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, UK. Thereafter, he joined the Pakistan Army, from which he resigned as a captain in 1962.

Gohar Ayub has been elected four times to the National Assembly from Abbottabad. He was first elected in March 1965 as a Muslim League candidate. In 1977 he contested the National Assembly seat from Peshawar Jail and was elected. Gohar Ayub Khan has served as senior vice president of the Muslim League and was elected Speaker of the National Assembly after the 1990 general election, remaining in this post until 1993 elections. At present, Gohar Ayub is deputy leader of the opposition in the National Assembly.

A businessman and industrialist by profession, he is also a keen sportsman who is fond of riding, hockey, and big game hunting.


Ghulam Ishaq Khan was born on 20 January 1915 in Ismail Khel, a small town in Bannu District of NWFP. He did his B.Sc. in Chemistry and Botany and joined the Provincial Civil Service in NWFP in 1940. Where he served as a first class magistrate and sub-divisional officer until 1944. In 1948 he was appointed home secretary of the provincial government. He was also provincial food secretary and director of civil supplies. In 1949 he became secretary of development of the NWFP government, while he also served as administrative secretary of agriculture, forestry, industry and other departments. In 1953, he was appointed development commissioner, controlling various departments, which included irrigation and electricity. For some time he acted as secretary to the committee for anti-corruption. After the unification of West Pakistan into one unit in 1955, Ishaq Khan was appointed provincial secretary irrigation development in the Govt. of West Pakistan. In this capacity, he represented the provincial government in the federal planning commission. He also represented the government at various international conferences in Japan, Indonesia and Singapore as a member of economic delegations.

Ishaq Khan visited Afghanistan in 1958 as a member of a trade delegation. He remained a member of Peshawar University's syndicate and senate until 1961. In 1958, he was made a member of WAPDA. At the same time, he was a member of the Agriculture Reform Commission during Ayub's period. In 1966, he was appointed federal finance secretary and promoted to secretary general of defence during Bhutto's period.

During Zia ul Haq's martial law, Ishaq Khan initially served as advisor to the president on finance and from 1977 to 1985 as federal finance minister. As finance minister, he represented Pakistan at various international conferences, including U.N. conferences on finance, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of Islamic Countries, and the Asian Development Bank. He made important contributions in negotiating with 2international agencies and foreign countries for acquiring developmental loans for Pakistan.

Ghulam Ishaq Khan was elected chairman of the Senate of the parliament in February 1985, after being elected as a member of the Senate from NWFP. He took the oath of office as chairman of the Senate in March 1985. Ishaq Khan remained chairman of Senate, even after the National Assembly and the federal cabinet of Muhammad Khan Junejo was dismissed in May 1988.

After the death of president Zia ul Haq in August 1988, he became the acting president. The elections brought in the PPP, which nominated Ghulam Ishaq Khan along with IJI as the consensus candidate for president. Presidential elections were held on 12 December 1988, in which Ishaq Khan won by an overwhelming majority. On 13 December 1988, he took the oath of office for the five year term. However, in 1993, due to differences with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, he resigned a few months before the expiry of his term. The highlight of his term as president is the use of the Eighth Amendment, with which he dismissed two elected governments, that of Benazir Bhutto in August 1990 and that of Nawaz Sharif in April 1993.

Ishaq Khan is married and has one son and five daughters.


Ghulam Muhammad was born in Lahore on August 29, 1895. He graduated from Aligarh University and joined the Imperial Services, initially serving on the Railway Board and later in the Department of Post and Telegraph in the central government. During the second world war he was controller of general supplies and purchase.

During the first Round Table conference, Ghulam Muhammad represented the Nawab of Bhopal. He also remained a partner in Tata Company and financial advisor to the State of Deccan Hyderabad. He prepared Economic uplift Plan for Indian Muslims on Jinnah's instruction in 1944. He renounced in 1946 his title of CIE which was given to him in 1942, on League's decision. After independence, he joined the central cabinet as finance minister.

After the assassination of Liaqat Ali Khan, Ghulam Muhammad became third Governor General by replacing Khawaja Nazimuddin. He initiated trend toward authoritarianism. In April 1953, he dismissed Khawaja Nazimuddin's cabinet and later on dismissed the Constituent Assembly in October 1954 by declaring a state of emergency.

A finance wizard, Ghulam Muhammad also had a deep interest in poetry and presided over many All India Poetry Competitions. He died on August 29, 1956.


G. M. Syed was born in 1904 in Sann, Sind. At the advent of British rule one of his great grand fathers Syed Ghulam Shah opposed the British rule and declined to accept the confirmation of his ancestor's Jagir because he was not prepared to take the oath of allegiance; his father Syed Muhammad Shah was the First to file case against Secretary of State for India and refused to take titles and other privileges. He died in 1905 when G.M Syed was sixteen months old.

G.M. Syed was brought up by his aunt, he received English education at his own village, entered politics in 1920 and joined Khilafat movement. Founded "Syeds Association" in 1924, attended Sindh Educational Conference as a delegate, was Vice President Karachi Local Board, President Taluka Local Board 1925-28, President Karachi District Local Board 1929-33, Director Karachi sind Provincial Cooperative Bank 1928-36, founded Lower Sind Zamindara Bank, remained member Anjuman-i-Tarraqi-i-Urdu, member Sind Madrassa Board, elected member Sind Legislative Assembly 1937, took part in the struggle for separation of Sind from Bombay presidency, remained member of opposition and didn't accept any office, joined Muslim League organization in 1938 and moved no confidence vote against Allah Baksh ministry in Sind, joined Civil Disobedience during Masjid Manzilgah agitation, was arrested November 1939-40. Founded the first Muslim League Ministry, appointed Minister in the Sind Government in 1940 resigned his post and was appointed Chairman Adhoc committee to organize Muslim League, remained member of All India Muslim league working committee 1941-45, president Sind provincial Muslim League 1942-45 moved Pakistan Resolution in sindh provincial Legislative Assembly March 1943, member of All India Muslim League Action committee December 1943-45, founded progressive Muslim League group in 1946 and became leader of opposition, supported Pakistan issue before cabinet commission, founded peoples party, organized Sind Hari Committee Since it's inception 1930, detained at Sann by Pakistan Government in 1948 on the issue of Separation of Karachi from Sind, reelected member of Sind provincial Assembly 1953, worked as leader of opposition till one unit, arrested in 1954 on the issue of one Unit, reelected member of one Unit West Pakistan Assembly 1955, founded National Awami party along with others in 1957 and was imprisoned during Martial Law and detained later at home. In 1969, he formed Sindh United Front, but after being disappointed from national politics in 1971, he founded the "Jie-e-Sindh" movement. He remained active in this movement until his death in 1995.

Syed was the author of more than sixty books, and pamphlets. His books are on numerous subjects, ranging from literature of politics, religion and culture. Some of his selected publications are: Struggle for New Sindh; Sindhu Desh: A study into separate Indetity; A Nation In Chains;The case for Sindh; Paigham-i-Latif; Dayar-i-Dil, Dastan-i-Muhabbat; Jadeed Siyasat Ja Nauratan and Sindhi Culture.


Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi was born on August 14, 1931 at new Jatoi in Sindh. His family has been in politics for a long time. His great-grandfather Khan Bahadur Ghulam Rasul Khan Jatoi was an honorary first class magistrate. His grandfather Imam Bakhsh Jatoi was also an honorary first class magistrate and a member of the Bombay Legislative Council from Nawabshah District for three successive terms from 1921 to 1932. He was also president of the district board and chairman of the Nawabshah school board. His father, Khan Bahadur Ghulam Rasul Khan Jatoi, was also president of the district board of Nawabshah for 10 years and a member of the Sindh Legislative Assembly from 1945 to 1956.

Ghulam Mustafa was educated at Karachi Grammar School and passed his Senior Cambridge. In 1952 he went to England to study law but had to return home within one year due to his father's serious illness.

Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi was elected to the first provincial assembly of the West Pakistan from Nawabshah. He was re-elected in 1965. Jatoi represented Pakistan in the UN General Assembly in 1962 and 1965, and was a member of the Pakistani delegation to the Inter-Parliamentary conference in Ottawa in September 1965, where he was elected one of the vice-presidents of the conference.

Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi joined the PPP in March 1969 and was elected to the National Assembly in 1970 on the PPP ticket. In 1973 he was elected chief minister of Sindh, an office he held until 1977. Jatoi was associated with the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MRD) against General Zia's regime. He was arrested twice, in 1983 and 1985.

Due to the differences with the leadership he founded the National People's Party. He was elected to the National Assembly in the by-elections from Kot Addu (Muzaffargarh) in 1989. He joined the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (IJI) and was elected the leader of the combined opposition parties in the National Assembly after the 1988 elections. After the dismissal of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government, Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi was appointed care taker Prime Minster by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan for the interim period. He remained prime minister until the October 1990 elections which brought the IJI to power. Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi got elected in 1993 elections to the National Assembly.

After the dissolution of Assembly in November 1996, Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi has declared to support PPP (Shaheed Bhutto Group) in the coming elections in February 1997. His sons Tariq Jatoi and Ghulam Murtaza Jatoi are also in politics.


Malik Ghulam Mustafa Khar was born in Muzaffargarh on August 2, 1937 in the family of Kharrals. He was educated at Aitchison College Lahore.

He was elected to the National Assembly in 1962 as a Muslim Leaguer, and subsequently in 1965, 1970 again in 1988, 1990 and in 1993. He remained Governor Punjab in 1971, Chief Minister Punjab in 1974, Governor Punjab in 1975, Special Assistant to the Prime Minister in 1977 and Federal Minister for Water & Power in 1990. At Present he is serving in the same capacity.

In 1967 joined PPP as a founding member. He remained in exile during Martial Law for eleven years. On return he was jailed for two and a half years. While in Jail, elected MNA in 1988, Ghulam Mustafa Khan has never lost an election.


Hamid Nasir Chattha belongs to Rajput Jat stock and traces descent to Prithviraj Chauhan. He is the only child of an exalted father, who owned 2,000 acres plus in the Punjabi heartland. His father was a committed Muslim Leaguer and General Secretary of the Party in the 1950's. Hamid Nasir started education at St. Anthony in Lahore and then moved to Aitchison and later to the Government College. After graduation he went to Lincoln's Inn to study law. But before he could be called to the Bar, his father was taken seriously ill and could never recover. Hamid Nasir Chattha had to return without completing his education.

Hamid Nasir won one of the biggest majorities in the Punjab in the 1985 partyless elections. His status as a resoundingly successful candidate and a staunch Leaguer was recognized by the then Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo, who appointed him Minister for information. However, he left his job to replace Fakhar Imam as speaker of the national assembly. He presided over the national assembly which passed the eighth amendment.He contested the election of 1988 but lost. However, he won in 1990 elections.

There after, he assumed charge of the Ministry of planning and development. He resigned this position, left Mr. Nawaz Sharif's cabinet and sided with the then President Ghulam Ishaq Khan during the tussel between the President & the Prime Minister. After the elections were held in October 1933, Mr. chattha parted ways with Nawaz Sharif's Muslim League and formed his own Muslim League (Chattha group). Muslim League (Chattha group) is at present coalition partner of Pakistan Peoples Party and is ruling in the province of Punjab, where the Chief Minister belongs to Muslim League (Chattha group). After the dismissal of PPP-PML(Chattha) governement he has to face difficulties within the party. PML(Chattha) is still on the band wagon of PDF along with PPP.

Hamid Nasir is married and has four children. Hamid Nasir took part in 1970 election but could not be elected. Again he lost the election in 1977 and was put into jail because of his opposition to Bhutto. He was released a couple of months later.


Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy was born on 8 September 1893, into an illustrious Muslim family from Midnapore in West Bengal, India. The ancestral home of the family was Suhraward, a city in Iraq, from which the family assumed its surname.

Suhrawardy received his early education from his mother and from his maternal uncle Sir Abdullah-al-Mamum Suhrawardy. Later he entered the Calcutta Aliya Madrassa and graduated with honours in science from St. Xavier's College. He obtained an M.A. in Arabic from Calcutta University in 1913. That same year he left for England for higher studies and graduated in science with honours from Oxford. He also received his B.C.L. degree from this university and was called to the bar from Grey's Inn in 1918.

Suhrawardy married Sr. Abdur Rahim's daughter, Begum Niaz Fatima, in 1920. Their married life lasted only three years. Begum Niaz died in 1922. They had a son and a daughter. The son, Shahab Suhrawardy, died in London in 1940 while pursuing his studies at Oxford. The daughter, Akhtar Jahan Suhrawardy, was married to Sir Muhammad Sulaiman's son, Shah Ahmad Sulaiman. Begum Akhtar Sulaiman died in Karachi in 1982 and is survived by her only daughter, Shahida Munni, who is also a barrister. In 1940, Suhrawardy married Vera Tiscenko, a former actress of the Moscow Arts Theater. They divorced in 1951. Their only son, Rashid, was brought up in England, where he pursued a career as a professional actor.

In 1921 Suhrawardy was elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly. As secretary to the Calcutta Khilafat committee, he became acquainted with C.R. Das, a Bengali leader who worked for Hindu Muslim Unity. As a result, when C.R. Das formed the Swaraj party in 1923, he appointed Suhrawardy as deputy leader of the party. In 1924, the Swaraj party captured a majority of the seats in the Calcutta corporation election. Although he was never in Congress, in accordance with a stipulation of the Bengal part, Shaheed Suhrawardy was elected the first deputy mayor of the Congress hidden corporation, the first Muslim to be appointed to such a post.

Between 1923 and 1926, Suhrawardy was associated with youth organizations and, after 1927, with the labour movement. The National Labour Federation was formed in 1927. Suhrawardy was successful in setting up thirty-six trade union organizations in different mills, ensuring that disputes between employers and labourers were brought to the negotiation table before drastic measures were taken. As general secretary of the Khilafat Committee, Suhrawardy organized the All India Khilafat Conference with Maulana Muhammad Ali presiding. He also organized the first All-Bengal Muslim Conference in Calcutta in 1928. In 1933 Suhrawardy appeared before the commission for constitutional reforms in London as a representative of the Muslim Conference.

In 1936, Suhrawardy organized the Independent Muslim Party (IMP) and became its general secretary, while Khawaja Nazimuddin served as its president. In the same year he affiliated his organization with the All India Muslim League and thus became the general secretary of the Bengal Provincial Muslim League (BPML).

After the introduction of provincial autonomy in the 1935 Act, the first general election was held in 1936. Suhrawardy organized the election campaigns, and his untiring efforts helped in securing 39 of the 119 Muslim seats in Bengal. As a result of a coalition with other parties, the BPML ministry was formed in 1937. Suhrawardy joined the Praja-League coalition government as minister for labour and commerce. He also held the portfolio of finance for a brief period. Suhrawardy attended the Lahore session of the AIML as the spokesmen for the Bengal delegation. In 1941, he left Fazalul Huq's ministry when the Muslim League withdrew its support from the ministry. He joined Khawaja Nazimuddin's ministry formed in April 1943 as civil supplies minister. Suhrawardy dauntlessly handled the great famine of Bengal of 1943, and saved millions of lives.

During 1945 and 1946, central and provincial elections were held on the Pakistan issue. As general secretary of the BPML, Suhrawardy was in charge of elections. Due to his superb organization, the BPML captured 114 of the 119 Muslim seats of the provincial assembly. Elected leader of the parliamentary group, Suhrawardy formed the ministry on 24 April. He was responsible in amending the lahore resolution 1946. During his ministry, communal clashes took place in Bengal. The victims mostly were Muslims. To protect the Muslims, Suhrawardy against the wishes of the governor recruited 1,200 Muslim Punjabi sepoys to keep a balance in the Police force.

After independence, when the Punjabi Muslim armed police opted for East Bengal and left Calcutta, the Hindus took advantage of this and began planned attacks on Muslim localities. Suhrawardy, in order to make the majority community responsible, stayed behind in Calcutta and dedicated himself to the fight for peace. He put forward a proposal for United Bengal with the blessing of Quaid-e-Azam, but they did not succeeded.

In November 1947, he convened an All India Muslim League convention in Calcutta. That same year Suhrawardy also attended the last session of the AIML council session in Karachi with Jinnah presiding.

In 1948 June, Khawaja Nazimuddin, the League premier in East Bengal, imposed a ban on Suhrawardy's entry into East Bengal. Suhrawardy's ailing father died in Calcutta in early 1949. The Indian government imposed an enormous income tax on him, and, on the flimsy ground of non-payment, appropriated his entire property. Suhrawardy was penniless, and since his entry into East Bengal was banned, he returned to Karachi in March 1949 to witness his National Assembly seat retrospectively canceled on technical grounds by Liaqat Ali Khan.

In June 1949, Suhrawardy and his former Muslim League workers in East Pakistan formed the East Pakistan Awami Muslim League, which he renamed the Awami League in 1953. With A. K. Aazazul Haq and Maulana Bhashani, Suhrawardy established the United Front in November 1953 in Dhaka to fight the Muslim League in East Pakistan. The United Front, with its 21 point programme, captured 215 of the 237 Muslim seats in the 1954 general elections. The Awami League contested 140 Muslim seats and won all of them. As a result, a United Front ministry was formed in East Bengal. Suhrawardy joined the ministry of Muhammad Ali Bogra in December 1954 as law minister, 1954-1955.

H. S. Suhrawardy became the fifth prime minister of Pakistan on 12 September 1956. During his brief stint, he took a number of measures, which included the passage of the Joint Electorate Bill and the formulation of aggressive economic policies to remove disparity in the east. He followed a spirited foreign policy, based on friendly relations with neighboring countries and the Muslim world and close relations with the western bloc. Suhrawardy resigned as Prime Minister in October 1957 following the president's refusal to convene a meeting of parliament to seek a vote of confidence. In order to forestall his campaign, Ayub Khan arrested Suhrawardy on 30 January 1962, but owing to popular demonstration, the president released him on 19 August. He apposed East Pakistan's demands for further provincial autonomy.

Upon his release from jail, Suhrawardy and other political leaders on 5 October 1962 formed the National Democratic Front, consisting of all the parties opposed to Ayub Khan. He died in Beirut in mysterious circumstances.

I.I.CHUNDRIGAR (1897-1960)

Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar was born in 1897. After graduating in law from Bombay University, he served as a member of the Ahmedabad Municipal Council from 1924-27 and was elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly in 1937. He was president of the Bombay Provincial Muslim League from 1940-45 and a member of the working committee of the All India Muslim League in 1946, the same year in which he was minister of commerce in the interim government. After independence, Chundrigar became minister of commerce and industries 1947-48. He was subsequently appointed ambassador to Afghanistan (1948-1950), governor of the NWFP (1950-51), and governor of Punjab (1951-53). In 1955, as law minister under Ch. Muhammad Ali, he played an important role in framing the 1956 constitution. During Suhrawardy's tenure as prime minister, Chundrigar was the leader of the opposition. After Suhrawardy's resignation, I.I. Chundrigar, leader of the Muslim League parliamentry party, formed governement. The Muslim League ministry headed by Chundrigar survived only from October 18, 1957-Dec. 11, 1957. He was the only Prime Minister to retire voluntarily because he could not fullfill the mandate.

ISKANDAR MIRZA (1899-1969)

Born on November 13, 1899, in Bombay, educated at Elphinstone College and Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. He served in the Army till 1926. After serving as the first defence secretary of Pakistan in 1947-1954, he was appointed governor of East Bengal in May 1954. In the following October he joined the central cabinet of Muhammad Ali Bogra as minister of the interior, 1954-1955. He succeeded Ghulam Muhammad as governor general in 1955 and was elected as the first president upon the adoption of republican constitution in 1956.

In his public statements, he advocated controlled democracy for Pakistan and a constitution revised according to the U.S. model. He took active part in bringing about various cabinet changes from 1956 to 1958. Iskandar Mirza Imposed Martial Law on October 7, 1958 but was forced to leave his office and the country by Ayub Khan on October 27, 1958. He lived in retirement in London for the rest of his life, there he died in November, 1969 and was buried in Tehran.


Son of Khawaja Nizam-ud-din of Dhaka, Khawaja Nazim-ud-din was born on July 19,1894. He was educated at Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, Aligarh, Dunstable Grammar School and Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He entered politics in 1922 and was elected chairman, Dhaka Municipality and remained in that position till 1929. During this period, he also served as member, Executive Council Dhaka University 1929-1934, he served as Minister of Education in Bengal. He successfully piloted Education Bill in the Bengal legislative Council in 1930 and was instrumental in the passage of the Bengal Agricultural Debtors' Bill and the Bengal Rural Development Bill in 1935-36. He was appointed home minister in April 1937, a post from which he resigned in December 1941, although he remained the leader of the opposition party.

He served in the Bengal Legislative Assembly from 1942 to March 1943, as leader of the Muslim League Ministry from April 1943 to March 1945, and as a member of the All India Muslim League Working Committee for 10 years (1937-47). In addition, he was a member of the Indian Food Delegation to the USA and represented India at the last session of the League of Nations in 1946 in Geneva.  He served as chief minister of Bengal, 1943-45 and after independence as Chief Minister of East Bengal (1947-48).  After succeeding Muhammad Ali Jinnah as the second governor general of Pakistan in September 1948, he was appointed prime minister of Pakistan (1951-53) after the assassination of Liaqat Ali Khan.

In his personal life, he married Shah Bano, daughter of K.M. Ashraf, in August 1924. An avid sportsman, he took keen interest in cricket, hockey, football, tennis, shooting and angling. He was president of the Indian Hockey Federation from 1938-40 and president of the Muhammadan Sporting Club, 1937-46. He performed Haj in 1936.  Khawaja Nazimuddin died in 1964.


Khurshid Hasan Meer, one of the founder member of the Pakistan People Party, was born in Srinagar in 1925. At the age of 17, Meer was imprisoned (1942) because of his participation in the Muslim Student Fedration at the prince of wales college at Jammu. After he was released, he went to the Aligarh University. At Aligarh, he became secretary of the students Union, where he also took part of in the anti Jagirdar front. The front was allied to the Aligarh communist party.

Meer joined air force at Jodhpur, and in 1947, he moved to Risalpur in Pakistan. As there was shortage of students at Risalpur, the flying course couldn't start, as a result he joined the guerrillas in Kashmir. Meer Sahib commanded a company of Azad Kashmir irregular troops on the front in 1948.

After a stint at the Punjab University, Meer Sahib started law practice at Rawalpindi. He joined Mian Iftikharuddin's Azad Pakistan party, which later merged with the National Awami party. He also participated in the campaign against Ayub Khan. He played an active role in the founding convention of the Pakistan peoples party and in formulating the structure of the party.

Khurshid Hasan Meer was made incharge of the People Party Rawalpindi city and district, where PPP won all the seats in 1970. In these election he had defeated Asghar Khan from Rawalpindi by a massive margin of 40,000 votes. When PPP government was formed, Bhutto asked Meer to organize Punjab PPP. He was also made a member of the council of advisors. A special post of deputy secretary general was created for Khurshid Hasan Meer in the party. He joined the cabinet as a federal Minister of Establishment, Science and Technology and later Communications. But within two months, he tendered his resignation as he was unhappy with the way party was being run.

Bhutto, however, didn't accept his resignation. But more confrontation followed. In Nov. 1972, Meer Sahib organized party's five yearly convention and openly criticized the party in his speech. He asked that the only way to prevent infighting in the party was to hold elections, that corruption in the party needs to be eliminated and the party's reliance on bureaucracy would prove fatal. Z.A. Bhutto was furious when he heard about the speech. He wrote several poems against the changing character of the party and had them published in the Pakistan Times.

In 1974, Z.A. Bhutto handed over party organization to Malik Muhammad Yar Tamman. As a result in December 1974, Meer Sahib resigned publically both as the general secretary and as minister. He didn't however, leave the party, and in 1975, on Bhutto's request organized 100 processions in three months in 1976. But in 1977 Meer formed a rebel leftist “Manshoor group” in the party which split into Awami Jamhoori Party in the same year. But with Bhutto's arrest in 1977, Meer was once again on the podium supporting the PPP. AJP's separate identity soon disappeared as Meer and other leaders were harassed by the Martial law authorities. After being cleared by the disqualification tribunal, he was arrested in the Liaqat Bagh case.

Khurshid Hasan Meer rejoined the party in 1988 but spent most of his time writing articles on constitutional matters and campaigning against fundamentalists. He remained active throughout this period. During the second government of the PPP, he was asked by the Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto to look after the affairs of the Peoples Party Central Secretariat. He died in 1996. Khurshid Hasan Meer was a poet also and wrote poems on various themes. He also translated the poetry of Faiz Ahmed Faiz into the English language.


Maulana Kausar Niazi was born in Mianwali, Punjab, in 1934. He graduated in English and did honours in Arabic, Urdu and Persian from Punjab University, Lahore. He studied Islamic thought from Maulana Maududi, Tafsir-e-Quran from Maulana Amin Ahsan Islahi, Hadith from Maulana Muhammad Islahi, Bokhari Sharif from Maulana Muhammad Idrees Kandhalvi, and Arabic from Maulana Ubaidul Haq Nadvi.

Maulana Kausar Niazi has written more than thirty books on literature, Islamic thought, politics, history and research. All his books are written in Urdu, and many have been translated in English, Arabic and Persian.

He worked with Pakistan People Party's founder Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and rose to become one of the party's top leaders. He also served as the central information secretary and general secretary of the party. He remained out of politics for sixteen years and rejoined the Pakistan Peoples Party in 1993.

Maulana Kausar Niazi has held many political offices. He was elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan in 1970 while he was in jail. He was again elected as a member of the National Assembly in 1977. In 1985 he was elected to the Senate of Pakistan. He was the senior minister of the Federal Cabinet from 1972 until 1977. He also served as adviser to the president of Pakistan for haj, auqaf and information in 1971.

He was also an Urdu poet of great repute and standing. Two of his poetic collections have achieved international acclaim:   Zar-e-Gul and Lamhe. He was an outstanding speaker on religion, history, politics, philosophy and literature.

Maulana Kausar Niazi was also a leading journalist of Pakistan. He edited the daily Tasneem, which was published from Lahore, He also edited the weekly Kausar and the monthly Tamir-e-Insaniat and was the founder editor of the famous weekly Shahab published from Lahore. He also wrote weekly column in Jang. He died in 1994 in a road accident.


Maulana Maududi was born in 1903 at Aurangabad in Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) India, into a family with a long religious tradition. He received religious education from his father and was also taught Persian and Arabic.

After his father's death, Maududi took up journalism at the age of sixteen. He was the correspondent of Taj (Jabalpur) and afterwards became its editor. In 1920 he went to Delhi to assume the editorship of the newspaper Muslim (1921-23) and later on Al-Jamiyat (1925-28), both of which were organs of the Jamiat-e-Ulema-e-Hind an organization of Muslim religious scholars. After his resignation from Al-Jamiyat, Maulana Maududi moved to Hyderabad where he devoted himself to research and writing.

In 1933, he became editor of the monthly journal, Tarjuman al-Quran, published from Hyderabad, which became the main vehicle for the dissemination of his ideas. He also served as the dean of the faculty of Theology at Islamia College, Lahore. In the early 1920's Maududi began to take some interest in politics and participated in the Khilafat Movement. Between 1937 and 1947 Maududi denounced the nationalism championed by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and the ulema of Deoband as well as the Pakistan Movement led by the Quaid-i-Azam regarded the leaders of the Pakistan movement as kafirs (non-believers). Maulana Maududi established Jamaat-e-Islami in 1941. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, he migrated from Pathankot to Lahore.

In 1952-3 he led a campaign with the Ahrars and the orthodox ulema, demanding that the Ahmadi community be declared a non-Muslim minority and that Zafarullah Khan, an Ahmadi and then foreign minister, and other Ahmadis in Pakistan be removed from their offices. Agitation and riots followed, and martial law was imposed in Lahore in February, 1953. Maududi was sentenced to death. Under public pressure the sentence was eventually commuted. Maududi played a central role in the controversy and delayed constitution making in Pakistan for about eight years. It was generally agreed that Pakistan should become an Islamic state, but there was no agreement on the precise meaning of the term Islamic state. This caused a drawn out controversy between the westernized politicians and the ulema.

The Islamic state as envisaged by Maududi has its constitution and laws conferred by God. Sovereignty belongs to Allah. It includes its supreme ruler, the amir, the Majlis-e-Shura (advisory council) and the judiciary. The amir, representing the respectable and the most pious men of his society, will be elected and will exercise full authority in all respects as long as he follows the Shariah. There will be no political parties and no provision for opposition. For his Islamic state, Maududi coined a new term, theo-democracy, which means a divine democratic government.

He led an active political life and wrote a number of books on religion and History. His commentary on the Quran, Tafhim-ul-Quran is considered by his followers as his best work. During Ayub's period, he opposed the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance which restricted the polygamous trend in Pakistani society. He supported Miss Fatimah Jinnah's candidature in 1964 elections. During Bhutto's period, he was opposed to his policies and played an effective role in organizing the movement against him. He died in 1979.

MEHNAZ RAFI (1943- )

Mehnaz Raffi was born in the United Provinces in 1943. Her father, Chaudhry Nabih Jaan was the Talukadar of a hamlet near Lucknow. He was actively involved in politics, serving as the secretary of the Muslim League. After independence, the family moved to a small house in Chaubourgi Park, Lahore. She has more or less lived in the same residential area behind the Chaubourgi monument since 1954.

Mehnaz Raffi received her early education from a local Madrasah, later she joined Lahore College where she completed her B.A. She worked in Radio Pakistan, doing programs for children. When PTV offered her a job, she began her career compering Quiz programs and appeared in TV dramas in the late 60's. She got married to her cousin at the age of 24. She has two children.

During Z.A., Bhutto's period Mehnaz joined the Tehrik-i-Istaqlal, headed by Air Marshall Retd. Asghar Khan. Mehnaz took part in anti government marches in 1977. Latter, she was elected Chairperson of the Lahore's women wing, as her party took note of her as an effective organizer.

In 1981, during Zia's martial Law, she was arrested for anti-state activities (she'd been distributing phamplets and cassettes and delivering speeches condemning the Martial Law regime). Mehnaz was released after spending three months in Jail.

Mehnaz Raffi immediately returned to her political activities, as a result she was arrested again in 1983 for bringing out processions with the MRD alliance. This time she stayed for a month. By now, Mehnaz was also an active member of the Women's Action Forum (WAF) which she had helped found. She was fore most among those women lathi charged and arrested for protesting against the Hudood Ordinance. Mehnaz has also served as the Chairman Punjab of the Tehrik. She along with other member of Tehrik-i-Istiqlal joined Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz Group) in 1993.


Mian Mahmood Ali Kasuri was born in 1910 to an educated family of Kasur. His father, Maulana Abdul Qadir Kasuri was a lawyer who held the post of the president of the Punjab congress for 10 years and had also been active in the Khilafat Movement. Mahmood Ali after graduation, took admission at Kings College, Cambridge, for masters in Law and was one of the few Asians to top the successful candidates.

He got back home to discover that the British would not let him practice Law because he had served a year long jail sentence for taking part in the Civil Disobedience Movement earlier. Later, they relented and he setup practice in Lahore. It was at his time that his active interest in politics matured into a life long commitment.

In 1942, he joined the Muslim League. By 1950, he left the party alongwith Mian Iftikharuddin because he felt the party was not doing enough for the people. The two young progressives went on to form the Azad Pakistan Party, a party which later merged into the National Awami Party. Later on Bhutto persuaded him into joining the PPP in the early 70's. Elected an MNA from Lahore, he later became the Minister for Law and Parliamentary Affairs. During this time he was the moving force behind Interim Constitution, which allowed for the transition from military to civilian rule and 1973 Constitution which envisaged a federal and parliamentary form of government. In 1973, he resigned because he did not like the way the PPP dealt with it's political opponents and because Bhutto wanted a quasi-presidential government. Mian Sahib joined the Tehrik-i-Istiqlal with which he remained till his death.

In between he handled several important posts. He served on the International Tribunal created by Bertrand Russell for trying American war crimes in vietnam and founded the civil Liberties Union for the Protection of human rights. In 1981, he was instrumental in bringing together different political parties to form the movement for the restoration of Democracy against General Zia, just as he had done against Ayub Khan earlier. Mahmood Ali Kasuri spent several months in jail for his crusade for democracy and human rights.

Throughout his life, he kept a remarkably open mind. His house on 4-Fane Road was often the meeting place of a strange potpourri of rightists, centrists, leftists and religious fanatics. According to his younger son Omar, "it was important for my father to associate with every one to find out what they thought". Every afternoon Mian Sahib would take a dozen or so more people home for lunch.

Mahmood Ali Kasuri's career reflected his personal side. As a human rights crusader, he often took controversial cases, which included those of the Qadiani Ulema, Maulana Mauddodi, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Maulvi Tamizuddin, Ghaffer Kahn, Wali Khan, Nawabzada Nasrullah, Bhutto's reference on Bangladesh and the NAP case. At one point General Zia approached him to prosecute Bhutto, an offer he turned down.

He was married to Roshanara Begum, of the royal family of Loharu, India. His eldest son, Khurshid Ali Kasuri like his father is a politician and remained an active member of tehrik-i-Istiqlal and is at present is a Vice President of Muslim League (Nawaz Group).


Moeen Qureshi is a graduate of University of Punjab and has a doctorate in Economics from Indiana University in USA.

Mr. Qureshi began his career in the government of Pakistan in 1953 and held various positions in finance and planning. He was deputy Chief of planning commission in the government in 1958 when he moved to IMF in Washington. Moeen Qureshi served in various capacities with the IMF from 1958-70 including service in West Africa as IMF's Resident Representative in Ghana. He held the rank of Senior Advisor at the time of joining the International Finance corporation in 1970. He severed in IFC as Economic Advisor and Vice President before being appointed Executive Vice President in February 1977. In July 1979 he was appointed Vice President Finance of the world Bank. In August 1980 he was appointed Senior Vice President Finance of World Bank.

Lectured at Harvard Business School, Wharton School and University of Virginia. Written and spoken extensively on issues of economic development, especially problems of industrialization, private investment and Finance. He was appointed caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan in 1993.


Muhammad Ali Bogra, the third prime minister of Pakistan, was born in East Bengal. He was educated at Presidency College Calcutta. He was elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly in 1937 and became parliamentary secretary to Khawaja Nazimuddin in 1943, who was then chief minister of Bengal. He was named finance and health minister of the province in 1946. After the establishment of Pakistan he was appointed ambassador to Burma in 1947-49, High Commissioner to Canada in 1949, and ambassador to U.S. in 1951-1953. Muhammad Ali Bogra was appointed Prime Minister in April 1953 by Governor General Ghulam Muhammad after dismissing the government of Khawaja Nazimuddin. After Ghulam Muhammad dissolved the Constituent Assembly on 24 October 1954, Muhammad Ali Bogra was invited to form a new cabinet called the Ministry of All Talents.

After being replaced by Chaudry Muhammad Ali in August 1955, Muhammad Ali Bogra resumed his former post as ambassador to the United States. During Auyub's regime he served as foreign minister. He died in 1963.


Ayub Khan was born on 14 May 1907 in the village of Rehana in Hazara division. After his early education in local school, he joined Aligarh Muslim University. In July 1926, Ayub Khan joined Royal Military College in Sandhurst.

Ayub Khan was commissioned in the British Indian army in 1928. While serving in the 14th Punjab Regiment during World War II, he saw action in Burma against the Japanese. Later he served as private secretary to the British resident in Hyderabad. After independence, he joined the Pakistan Army. He was posted as general commanding officer in East Pakistan in 1948. He was promoted in 1951 to a full general and made commander in chief of the army.

As commander in chief, he played a key role in negotiations concerning Pakistan's entry into U.S. sponsored military alliances. He also served as defence minister in Muhammad Ali Bogra's “Ministry of All Talents” in 1954-55.

General Ayub Khan took over power when he removed President Iskandar Mirza on October 27, 1958. He was appointed CMLA by President Mirza on October 7, 1958. He got from his cabinet the title of Field Marshal.

During his tenure, Basic Democracy was introduced in the 1962 Constitution, which institutionalized indirect elections. The 1962 Constitution also gave extraordinary powers to the president. After the imposition of 1962 Constitution, Field Marshal Ayub, in January 1962, became president of Pakistan. Miss Fatima Jinnah led a popular movement against him in late 1964 as a candidate of Presidentship. He won the elections in January 1965 and remained president until 1969. 1965 war was fought during his tenure. He published his autobiography in 1967 titled “Friends not Masters”.

During his term, the Great Decade was celebrated, which was the official characterization of development plans executed during the ten years of his rule. But mass revolt erupted against his economic and political policies, and he had to resign in 1969.


He was born on August 18, 1932 at Sindhri, District Sanghar. After completing his Senior Cambridge, he acquired a diploma from the Agricultural Institute in Hustings, England.

He began his political career at the age of 21 and was elected president of the district council of Sanghar in 1954. In 1962, he was elected as a member of the Provincial Assembly of West Pakistan. He was appointed as a minister in the West Pakistan cabinet in July 1963 and held the portfolios of health, basic democracy and local government, works, communications and railways. He relinquished this post in March, 1969.

After the party-less polls for the National and Provincial Assemblies in 1985, Muhammad Khan Junejo was appointed prime minister by General Zia ul Haq. Martial law was lifted at the end of 1985. Muhammad Khan Junejo was dismissed on 29 May 1988 by General Zia, who used the discretionary powers of the Eighth Amendment. He played a role in transition from Martial Law to democracy.

Muhammad Khan Junejo died in 1992. His son, Asad Junejo, is in politics and belongs to the Muslim League (Junejo Group).


Muhammad Nawaz Sharif was born in Lahore on 25 December 1949. He is the eldest son of Muhammad Sharif, a joint owner of Ittefaq Group of Industries. Nawaz Sharif was educated at St. Anthony's High School, Government College (Lahore), and Punjab University Law College in Lahore. During his college days, he took keen interest in extra-curricular actives. He is a keen sportsman with a penchant for cricket.

Nawaz Sharif joined the Punjab Cabinet as finance minister in 1981 and for four successive years presented a development oriented budget. He was able to raise the allocation of funds to the development of rural areas to 70 percent of the annual provincial development programme. He also held the portfolio of sports and reorganized sports activities in the province.

In the general elections of 1985, held on a non-party basis, Nawaz Sharif was returned with overwhelming majorities to both the National and Provincial Assemblies. But he opted for a role in his own province and was voted by the house to become its chief minister. He was sworn in on 9 April 1985. After the dismissal of assemblies in May 1988 by General Zia, Nawaz Sharif was sworn in as caretaker chief minister on 31 May 1988.

In the November 1988 elections, which were party based, he again won with an overwhelming majority and became, for the second term, the chief minister of Punjab. He was sworn in on 2 December 1988.

After winning the national polls on 24 October 1990, Nawaz Sharif, the architect of Islami Jamhoori Ittehad, was sworn in as prime minister on 6 November 1990. However, he could not complete his five year term due to friction with president Ishaq Khan over the Eighth Amendment. He was dismissed by the president in April 1993. Although he won the constitutional petition filed in the supreme court challenging the president's order, nonetheless, he had to resign along with the president in July 1993. The elections held in October 1993 brought the PPP back to power.

Nawaz Sharif is currently the head of Muslim League (Nawaz Group). During his tenure as prime minister, importance was given to industrialization with the help of the private sector. Important projects like Ghazi Barotha Dam and the Gwadar mini-port were initiated. Also, land was distributed to landless haris in Sindh. A massive uplift of Murree and Kahuta was done during his tenure as chief minister of Punjab. Relations with the central Asian Muslim republics were strengthened, and the ECO was given a boost. To end the Afghan war, the Islamabad Accord was reached between various Afghan factions with the support of Nawaz Sharif. His most important contribution was economic progress without foreign aid.

Nawaz Sharif establishmed an Islamic Academy in Lahore, known as the Ittefaq Islamic Academy, which imparts religious education as well as instruction in social sciences and natural sciences. A large charitable hospital, known as the Ittefaq Welfare Hospital has also been built by his family. In addition, deserving students, widows and orphans and religious, charitable and educational institutions are given liberal financial help. Nawaz Sharif is married and has two daughters and two sons.


General Zia was born in Jullunder in the Indian province of Punjab on August 12, 1924. He was commissioned in 1945, serving in Burma, Malaya and Indonesia during the Second World War and in the wars with India in 1965 and 1971. He rose from the rank of colonel of an armored regiment in 1968 to that of general in 1976, when he was appointed Chief of Army staff by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, in succession to General Tikka Khan. In July 1977 he staged a coup, overthrowing the Bhutto government, and assumed power as chief martial law administrator. He assumed the office of president in September 1978 and was confirmed as such by a controversial referendum in December 1984 for a five year term beginning on March 23, 1985.

He appointed a nominated consultative assembly (Majlis-i-Shura), later held partyless elections and restored democracy only after he had considerably amended the consitution to suit his temperament. But he dissmised even these institutions including his own chosen P.M. Mohammad Khan Junejo.

During his rule, President Zia maintained closer ties with the Muslim world. During the Iran-Iraq war, President Zia made efforts, along with other Muslim states, to bring an end to the war. Pakistan also joined Non-Aligned Movement in 1979 during his term. In addition, Pakistan played an important role during the Afghan guerrilla war against the Soviet Union. President Zia's implementation of Islamic laws and policies, however, resulted in strong domestic protests.

After dismissal of Junejo on May 29, 1988, he announced partyless elections in November 1988. Before these elections could be held, he died on August 17, 1988 in a plane crash near Bahawalpur, Punjab. His remains were buried near Faisal Mosque, Islamabad.


Mumtaz Ali Bhutto is a lawyer of repute, and a seasoned parliamentarian. He was born in March 1933 at village Pri Bakhsh Bhutto. He started his primary education at saint George's College, Masoori. After independence, he went for a short while to Grammar School, Quetta and then to Lawrence College, Ghora Gali, Murree. He completed Matric in a private School near Regent's Park. He was admitted to Christ Church College, Oxford in 1954 and did M. A. Honours in Jurisprudence.

In 1959, he was called to Bar at London's Inn. He practiced law in the High Court, Karachi Bench for two years and then entered politics. He was elected unopposed from Larkana to the National Assembly of Pakistan in 1965.

A founder member of the Pakistan People's Party, Bhutto was again elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan from Larkana in 1970. He was appointed Governor of Sind in December 1971. He remained Chief Minister of Sind from 1st May 1972 to 19th December 1973. He was appointed Federal Minster for Communications on October 22, 1974, a portfolio he held till July 5, 1977.

He was elected unopposed to the National Assembly Seat from Larkana on PPP ticket in 1977 Elections. Mumtaz Bhutto visited Italy, France, Switzerland and W. Germany as the special every of the president of Pakistan in May 1975 and accompanied the Prime Minster to China in May 1974. In September 1974, he led a delegation to Japan at the invitation of Japanese Government.

He was jailed by the Martial Law Authorizing along with other political leaders on July 5, 1977. Later he formed. Sind National Front, a party which has an understanding with Murtaza Bhutto Faction of the Pakistan Peoples Party.

Mumtaz Ali Bhutto was appointed caretaker Chief Minister of Sind in November 1996, after the dissolution of Sind Assembly by the Sind Governor, Kamal Azfar.


Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan hails from a family of landlords (zamindars) of Muzaffargarh District in Punjab. He was 20 years old when he first took interest in politics and joined the Majlis-i-Ahrar. He was at one time secretary general of the All-India Majlis-i-Ahrar. He was also editor of the Ahrar organ, Azad. After the formation of Pakistan, when the Majlis-i-Ahrar was disbanded, Nawabzada joined the Muslim League. He contested the elections to the Punjab Legislative Assembly in 1951 and was elected. Later he, joined the Awami League and was appointed its convener. He was also elected president of the West Pakistan Awami League.

He led the opposition movement against Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1977, called the Pakistan National Alliance. Later, however, he joined hands with the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) in the Movement for the Restoration for Democracy (MRD) against General Zia-ul-Haq. During Benazir Bhutto's first term, the Nawabzada opposed her government. After the downfall of her government, Nawabzada Nasrullah formed the All Parties Conference (APC), with whom the PPP developed a working alliance.

The Nawabzada also headed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), which sided with President Ishaq Khan, leading long marches on Islamabad until the Nawaz Sharif government was finally brought down. On the eve of the 1993 October elections, the NDA fell apart. The Nawabzada opted for a solo flight and won the home seat of Muzaffargarh for the National Assembly. At present, he is chairman of the Kashmir Committee.


Dr. Noor Jehan Panezai was born on February 6, 1949 in the Panezai family of the Kakar Tribe at Shenleza in the Sibi district of Balochistan. After her early education in Quetta, she went to Lahore where she earned an MBBS degree from Fatima Jinnah Medical College. She proceeded abroad and did her MRCOG from Edinbourgh. She also specialized in Gynecology and got an MRSH degree from the United Kingdom.

She was elected as a member of the National Assembly, against one of the special seats for women in 1985. Later she was elected to the senate of Pakistan. The only lady senator in the House in 1988 for a six year term. She also served as Minister for Health, Social Welfare and Women Division in the caretaker government in 1990. She was elected as Deputy Chairperson Senate in march 1991.


Born on March 23, 1929, Begum Nusrat Bhutto comes from a respectable Isphani family of Iran which had migrated to India before independence from Isphahan. After completing her education she started taking part in the social welfare. In 1947-48 she worked for the refugees coming to Pakistan. She joined the Women's National Guard and was given the rank of captain. She married Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1951.

She was the Chairperson of the Pakistan Red Crescent Society from 20th June 1974 to 4 July 1977. After the imposition of Martial Law in 1977, Begum Bhutto was kept under detention and solitary confinement for three years. Movement for restoration of Democracy was formed by her efforts along with other leaders in 1983. In 1984 she was forced to go abroad for treatment. In 1988 she returned to Pakistan.

She led the Pakistan People's Party in very difficult circumstances and in 1988 Elections her party emerged as the only national party of Pakistan. She was elected to the National Assembly by defeating her opponent by a margin of 80 thousand votes. She was sworn in as senior Minister in the Federal Cabinet in March 1989. She was elected as MNA in 1990 and 1993 General Elections.

Nusrat Bhutto had four children from Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto; Benazir, Murtaza, Shahnawaz and Sanam.

Nusrat Bhutto’s family story is quite tragic after the hanging of his husband Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1977, her younger son Shahnawaz Bhutto died in Pairs in mysterious circumstances in 1984. The last surviving son, Mir Murtaza got killed in a shoot out with Police in October 1996 outside his residence in Karachi.

Nusrat Bhutto has been appointed as the Rahbar chairperson of PPP on 30 November, 1996 by the Party CEC


Qazi Hussain Ahmad was born in 1938 in Ziarat Sahib Kakakhel, a village in the North West Frontier Province. His father Maulana Qazi Muhammad Abdul Rab was the Ameer of Jamiat Ulema -e- Islam, NWFP. After doing his masters in Geography from Islami College, he started his career as a lecturer at a Peshawar college for a short period. He then left teaching and moved toward business. He was good at business and within a few years he had a great influence on his fellow businessmen and was elected vice president of the NWFP Chambers of Commerce.

Qazi Hussain Ahmad started his political career from the platform of Islami Jamiat Tulba when he was studying in Islami a College, 2Peshawar. During his college days, he was President of Islami Jamiat Tuleba's Islamia College, Peshawar Unit. He was appointed Ameer (President) of Peshawar Jamaat-e-Islami, in 1970. Later, he became secretary general of the NWFP Jamaat-e-Islami and was then elevated to the post of Ameer Jamaat, NWFP.

In 1978, Qazi Hussain's dedication bore fruit and he was elected central secretary general of the Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan. He continued to hold this office for about nine years and then became the Jamaat Ameer in October, 1987 after Mian Tufail Muhammad resigned from this office due to health problems. Qazi Hussain Ahmad has worked untiringly for the popularity of the Jamaat. In his attempts to enter popular politics, Qazi Hussain's Jamaat joined hands with Mian Nawaz Sharif's Muslim League in 1988 under the umbrella of Islami Jamhoori Ittehad. He decided to leave the IJI after the 1990 general elections, a move opposed by the orthodox group.

Despite growing opposition to his policies, Qazi was re-elected Jamaat Ameer in October, 1992. He took a number of reformatory steps, including the formation of Pasbaan, a youth organization. The old guards accused Qazi of over riding the Shoora on a number of occasions. Resentment against Qazi peaked in 1993 when he launched the Pakistan Islamic Front and became its President. The sole reason for forming his own party was to contest the 1993 general elections from this platform. After the PIF's debacle, in the election, he was held responsible for Jamaat's humiliating defeat in the elections consequently, Qazi resigned from the Amarat in January, 1994. Later on he withdrew his resignation. In October 1996, Qazi Hussain Ahmed exhibited his strength by staging a Long March and sit-in against Benazir Bhutto's regime.


Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar was born at Peshawar on June 13, 1899, in Mohalla Rampura, Kocha Makran. He made a major contribution to the Muslim League in the North West Frontier Province. In addition to his role in politics, through his poetry Nishtar also contributed to creating political consciousness and Islamic spirit among his compatriots. Nishtar's father, Abdul Hannan, a railway contractor, was a prominent figure of the Afghan tribe, Kukar, who opposed the British. His ancestors who had settled in Zhob valley, Quetta  migrated to Qandhar because of British tyranny; Nishtar's grand father, Abdul Rahman, established his business there. After the death of Abdur Rahman, Maulvi Abdul Hannan settled in Peshawar. He was a literary person and a great religious scholar. Nishtar's grandmother named him Abdur Rab due to a dream she had had before his birth. Nishtar's family was deeply religious, and this family influence made Nishtar an enthusiastic votary of Islam.

Nishtar passed fifth grade in Choppel School, Peshawar, joined Mission High School, Peshawar, and later shifted to Sanatan Dharram High School. In 1918, was admitted to Edwards College. Although his father opposed any further study, Nishtar did not give up. Nishtar was influenced by Hazrat Syed Tajamal Hussain, who helped him formulate his ideas on Islamic injunctions. He was also fond of Sufism and other branches of religious knowledge. Nishtar prepared himself for the Munshi Fazil examination on the advice of Syed Tajjamal Hussain. After passing this exam, he went on to take the B.A. examination from the University of Punjab as an external candidate in 1923. He completed his L.L.B. in 1925 from Aligarh Muslim University with distinction. He received his professional training in law from Khan Bahadur Saadullah Khan. In 1920 he started his own legal practice.

Nishtar had ample opportunity to observe the political developments then taking place in India. It was the outbreak of the Khilafat Movement that made him concentrate whole-heartedly on politics. Nishtar occupies on eminent place in the history of the freedom movement in South Asia as a great freedom fighter, a top-ranking politician and a leader. He championed the cause of Muslim freedom in his oratory and in his Urdu and Persian poetry, which sheds light on his high aims and ideals. His first poem, composed in 1919, illustrates the significance of the Khilafat Movement.

Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar remained member of Indian National Congress 1927-31, was elected Municipal Commissioner, Peshawar Municipal committee, successively from 1929-38, joined All India Muslim League in 1932, remained a member AIML Council, 1936, member NWFP legislative Assembly 1937-45, Finance Minister NWFP 1943-45, member AIML Working Committee, 1944-47, represented the AIML at Simla Tripartite Conference 1946. Communication member, Interim Govt., 1946-47, He singed Air Agreement on behalf of India with France, Netherlands and USA. Minister of Communication, Govt. Of Pakistan 1947-49, Governor of Punjab, 1949-51, Minister Federal Govt. 1951-53. President Pakistan Muslim League 1956-58.


Sardar Farooq was born at D.G. Khan on 2nd May, 1940. He started his academic career from Aitchison College, Lahore in 1949, Mr. Leghari completed his education at the Oxford University in 1963, receiving the degree of MA-P.P.E.

Farooq Leghari joined the civil services of Pakistan in 1963, which he left ten years later in 1973 on invitation of the late Prime Minister Zulfakar Ali Bhutto to join the Pakistan peoples party. He took an active part in politics and was elceted as senator in 1975. In 1977 he won the elction of National Asembly and was appointed as Federal Minister for Production. As Secretary General of the Pakistan's Peoples Party from 1978 to 1983, he participated in the struggle for the restoration of democracy and underwent almost four years political imprisonment during the Martial Law regime.

Farooq Leghari was elected member of both national and Punjab Assembly in the 1988 elections. He served as the Federal Minister for Water & Power from December 1989 upto August 1990. In 1990, he was re-elected as member of the National Assembly and became Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the Assembly. He held the protfolio of the Federal Minister for Finance in the caretaker government in April-May 1993. During this period he presided over the 21st Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers held in Karachi from 25, 29 April, 1993.

He was re-elected to the National Assembly in October, 1993 and was Sworn in as the Minister for Foreign Affairs on October 19, 1993. Farooq Leghari was elected president of Pakistan on 13 November 1993 and took oath the same day for a term of five years. Farooq Leghari, dismissed Benazir Bhutto's government on 6 November 1996 on the charges of corruption and mal practices. Mr Farooq Leghari is married and has four children.


Shanaz Wazir Ali was born in Delhi in 1943. Her father who was in the civil service was posted in Mountbatten's secretariat. At independence,her family came to Karachi. As there was shortage of schools at the time of independence, Ms. Ali's mother opened a small nursery school in her home to teach her daughter.

Ms Ali grew up in karachi. When her father was appointed Minister for Economic Affairs to Washington DC, she moved with her family to the USA and was enrolled at the Woodrow Wilson High School. She graduated in Mass-communication from the American University in Washington.

After returning to Karachi, Ms Ali worked as an overseas news commentator for Radio Pakistan. Then she worked on a French backed project at the tourism department. After the project was packed up she began helping her mother with her school, which was by now an established institution. At the age of 24, she got married to a young scion of a wealthy business family. She has three children. In 1972, her husband left Pakistan for Dubai. After three turbulent years in Dubai, where her husband tried unsuccessfully to establish business, Ms. Ali ended the marriage and brought her three children to Lahore with her. In 1978, Ms. Ali began work at the Lahore American School as a Kindergarten teacher. Seven years later, the school appointed her principal.

Her political involvement began with Women Action Forum in 1982. She took part in protest marches against Hudood Ordinance. When Benazir Bhutto cane back in 1986, Shanaz Wazir Ali met Benazir during her tour of punjab and formally joined the PPP. She worked feverishly during 1988 election campaign and Benazir nominated her as a candidate for the reserved women's seat in the National Assembly. She was later on appointed as Minister of State for Education. In 1993 when the PPP returned to power, Ms. Shanaz Wazir Ali was again appointed an advisor to the Prime Minister for special education and social welfare.


Syeda Abida Hussain was born on 17 March 1946. She is the daughter of the late Col. Syed Abid Hussain Shah and Kishwar Sultana.

Syeda Abida completed her O-Levels at the Convent of Jesus and Mary, Lahore, and her A-Levels at Villa Miramonte and Montreux, Switzerland. She earned a diploma in the arts from an institution in Florence, Italy, and a BA in economics and political science from the University of Punjab.

She has served as a delegate to numerous international conferences, including the World Congress of Women in Helsinki (1969), the Preparatory Conference for International Women's Year in Warsaw (1974), the Algerian Congress of Women (1975), the 35th General Assembly of the United Nations (1980), meetings of the Asian Crafts Council in Colombo (1982) and New Delhi (1986), and conferences on Afghan refugees in Bellagio, Italy (1987) and Tehran (1989).

Elected as a Member of the Punjab Assembly on a seat reserved for women in February 1972, she served as a member of this assembly until its dissolution in December 1976. She joined the Pakistan People's Party in December 1971, resigning in February 1977 to join the National Democratic Party in May 1977. She resigned from the NDP in May 1979 and was elected chairman of the Jhang District Council. After serving for four years, she was reelected to a second term in 1983-87.

In 1985, Syeda Abida Hussain became a member of National Assembly as a directly mandated representative. She sat on the opposition benches throughout the tenure of the assembly. In 1988, she was reelected as an independent candidate. She worked as secretary to the combined opposition in parliament and was appointed caretaker Minister for Information and Broadcasting in August 1990.

She lost her National Assembly seat in the general elections of 1990 but was appointed Adviser on Population Welfare with the rank of a federal minister on 18 May 1991. Later, she was appointed Pakistan's Ambassador to the United States.

After the dissolutiion of assemblies in November 1996, she sworned in the interim set-up as Minister for Education.

Syeda Abida Hussain is married to Syed Fakhar Imam, they have three children.


Syed IftiKhar Hussain Gilani was born on July 18,1940 in Jungle Khel (Kohat). He graduated from F.C. College Lahore in 1959. He started his career as lawyer and was elected president High Court Bar Association Peshawar in 1981. He is also member Pakistan Bar Council. He remained Vice Chairman Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. Syed Iftikhar was appointed Advisor to the Governor, NWFP in 1975 & Special Assistant to the Chief Minister from 1975-76. In 1977 Election, he was elected Member NWFP Assembly.

In 1988, he was appointed Special Assistant to the P.M. on legal Affairs, after being elected senator from NWFP. He contested 1993 elections on PML(N) ticket and won his seat in the National Assembly.

Syed Iftikhar is married and has two daughters and a son.


Born on March 30, 1941, Wasim Sajjad graduated from the University of the Punjab in 1961. He stood first in the FEL and LLB examinations of Punjab University in 1962 and 1963, winning gold medals. He clinched another gold medal in 1964 by securing first position in M.A. political science. He won the Ruchi Ram Sahni Declamation Prize and the Krishan Kishora Grover Declamation Prizes of Punjab University. He was selected for Rhodes Scholarship in 1964 and won honours in jurisprudence from Oxford in 1966. He is a barrister from the Inner Temple, London. During his academic career he had the distinction of being the president of various societies. At Oxford he was president of the Islamic Society, the Pakistan Society, and the Oxford Birkenhead society. He has been secretary of the Rhodes Scholarship Selection Committee for Pakistan since 1981. He taught at the Law College, Lahore as part time lecturer from 1967-77. He has appeared in a large number of cases of constitutional and legal importance before the high courts and supreme court of Pakistan.

He attended the International Asian Cricket Conference in New Delhi in 1983 to draft a constitution for the conference. He has attended several international conferences including the International Parliamentary Conference in Sophia, Belgrade, where he was the head of the Pakistani delegation.

He was elected to the Senate as a technocrat from Punjab in 1985 and served as federal minister for justice and parliamentary affairs from September 28, 1986 to December 1, 1988. Senator Wasim Sajjad was sworn in as the chairman of the Senate of Pakistan on 2 December 1988. After the resignation of President Ishaq Khan, he served as acting president from July 1993 to November 1993. He was elected to another five year term as the chairman of the Senate in November 1993.

He is married and has a son and a daughter.


Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was born on 5 January, 1928 to Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto and his second wife, a young Hindu girl, Lakhi Bai, who changed her name to Khurshid when she converted to Islam. Shah Nawaz was a Sindhi landlord residing in Larkana. As the only surviving son, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the heir to his father's fortune. He was the only brother of his two real sisters, Manna and Benazir. His younger sister Benazir, died of influenza at 14 and was buried in Bhutto's ancestral home and burial village, Garhi Khuda Bakhsh.

Zulfikar Bhutto completed his early education at Bombay's Cathedral High School. He also met Jinnah a number of times during his stay in Bombay. At age 13, Bhutto was married to an older cousin, Sheerin, whose married name became Amir Begum. Zulfikar Bhutto inherited one third of his father-in-law's estates after latter's death. In September, 1947 he attended the University of Southern California, where he obtained a bachelor's degree; he then enrolled in the University of California at Berkeley in June, 1949. At Berkeley, Bhutto also served as the first Asian member of the student council. After completing his degree with honours in political science at Berkeley in June, 1950, he was admitted to Oxford.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto married Nusrat Isphani on 8 September, 1951. He was called to bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1953, and on June 21 of the same year, his first child, Benazir, was born. On his return to Pakistan, Bhutto started practicing law at Dingomal's. He also occasionally lectured on constitutional law in Karachi's Sind Muslim Law College and wrote several papers on constitutional questions.

In 1954, when the One Unit Scheme was enforced, Bhutto opposed it vehemently. In October 1957, when he was not yet 30, he addressed a committee of the General Assembly of the United Nations as a member of the Pakistani delegation. In 1958, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto joined President Mirza's cabinet as commerce minister. After General Ayub Khan took over, Bhutto retained his seat in the Cabinet.

In 1960, Bhutto was appointed Minister for Kashmir Affairs, while retaining his appointment as Minister of National Reconstruction and Information. In 1963, he took over as foreign minister from Muhammad Ali Bogra. His first major achievement as foreign minister was to conclude a Sino-Pak boundary agreement on March 2, 1963. That became the cornerstone of Pakistan's strongest and most important Asian alliance. In mid-1964, Bhutto helped convince Ayub of the wisdom of establishing closer economic and diplomatic links with Turkey and Iran, which were later linked as a trio called Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD). In June 1966, he left Ayub's cabinet over differences about the Tashkent Agreement brokered by the Soviet Union.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto launched the Pakistan People's Party on December 1 1967, with the four-fold motto “Islam is our faith, Democracy is our polity, Socialism is our economy, All power to the people”. Following the students' revolt of November 1968, which was largely inspired by his agitation against the Ayub regime, he was arrested and imprisoned until February 1969. In the general elections of December 1970, Bhutto's PPP won a large majority in West Pakistan capturing 81 seats out of 138 seats for West Pakistan. Following the defeat of Pakistan on the eastern front in the war with India, Yahya Khan resigned, and Bhutto took over as president and chief martial law administrator on December 20, 1971.

In early 1972 Bhutto nationalized ten categories of major industries and withdrew Pakistan from both the Commonwealth of Nations and SEATO. On March 1, he introduced land reforms. On July 2, he signed the Simla Agreement with India. On November 28, he inaugurated Pakistan's first nuclear power plant at Lyallpur (Faisalabad). Bhutto also chaired Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission and the Ministry of Science and Technology which he had established earlier in the same year. On April 12, 1973 President Bhutto presented the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan, after which he was sworn as prime minister. On December 30, 1973, he laid the foundation of Pakistan's first steel mill at Pipri. On January 1, 1974, Bhutto announced immediate nationalization of all banks.

The crowning glory came on February 22, 1974 when the Second Islamic Summit was inaugurated in Lahore. Heads of most Islamic states attended, including Mujib ur Rehman, the founder of Bangladesh, after Bhutto recognized Bangladesh.

After the elections for National and Provincial Assemblies were held in March 1977, the opposition, an alliance of nine parties called the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA), claimed that the results were rigged. In the ensuing turbulent period, army chief General Muhammad Zia ul Haq imposed martial law on July 5, 1977 and imprisoned Prime Minister Bhutto. On April 4, 1979 the former Prime Minister was hanged after the Supreme Court upheld the sentence passed by the High Court of Punjab, which sentenced him to death for the murder of the father of dissident PPP politician Ahmad Raza Kasuri. General Zia ignored all appeals from world leaders to mitigate the death sentence in the interest of his own safety, saving himself from the charges of treason against the constitution. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's body was flown to Larkana and buried at Garhi Khuda Baksh next to his father's grave.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Nusrat had four children; Benazir (1953), Murtaza (1954), Sanam (1957) and Shah Nawaz (1958). To Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s credit there are numerous publications including If I am Assassinated, The Great Tragedy, and The Myth of Independence.

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  2. Ahmad Salim, Pakistan of Jinnah: The Hidden Face, (Lahore, 1993).

  3. Ahmad Salim, Pakistan of Jinnah: The Hidden Face, (Lahore, 1993).

  4. Ahmed Saleem, Iskandar Mirza: Ek Sadar Ka Urooj-o-Zawal (Lahore, 1994).

  5. B.P.Barua, Emminent Thinkers in India and Pakistan (New Delhi, 1991).

  6. Benazir Bhutto, Daughter of the East: An Autobiography (London, 1989).

  7. Bio-data of Aitzaz Ahsan, (Islamabad, Press Information Department).

  8. Bio-data of Begum Nusrat Bhutto, (Islamabad, Press Information Department).

  9. Biodata of Benazir Bhutto (Islamabad, Press Information Department).

  10. Bio-data of Gohar Ayub Khan, (Islamabad, Press Information Department).

  11. Bio-data of Malik Ghulam Mustafa Khar , (Islamabad, Press Information Department).

  12. Biodata of Maulana Kausar Niazi, (Islamabad, Ministry of Religious Affairs).

  13. Bio-data of Noor Jehan Panezai, (Islamabad, Press Information Department).

  14. Bio-data of Sardar Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari, (Islamabad, Press Information Department).

  15. Bio-data of Syed Iftikhar Hussain Gilani, (Islamabad, Press Information Department).

  16. Bio-data of Syeda Abida Hussain, (Islamabad, Press Information Department).

  17. Bio-data of Wasim Sajjad, (Islamabad, Press Information Department).

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  19. Biographical sketch of Mr. Mumtaz Ali Bhutto, (Islamabad, Press Information Department)

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  22. Fighting Till the End The Friday Times , Lahore, March 18-24, 1993.

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  24. Hamid Nasir Chattha: I'm not sure I want to be P.M, The Friday Times, Lahore March 25-31, 1993.

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  45. Safdar Mahmood, Pakistan: Political Roots and Development (Lahore, Vanguard, 1990).

  46. Shanaz Wazir Ali: A Principled Woman, The Friday Times, Lahore, March 4-10, 1993.

  47. Stanley Wolpert, Zulfi Bhutto of Pakistan: His Life and Times (New York, 1993).

  48. Syed Mujawar Hussain Shah, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar: A Political Biography (Lahore, Qadiria Books, 1985).

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  50. The Ittefaq Saga, Newsline, Karachi, June 1992.

  51. The News, Islamabad, 1December,1996.

  52. The Qazi, The Maulana and The Professor" Friday Times, Lahore, February 24- March 2, 1994.

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